Retyped and added to the WWW by Mark J. Alexander from Rochester, Minnesota
last updated   12-10-07

Cliff Alexander Jr. At Ramsbury, England 1983

Photos and maps

  In the fall of 1983, Cliff received a teaching assignment to the University of Birmingham, England. While in England he visited Ramsbury where his great-great-grandfather, John, with his wife, Harriet had lived. Following; are his comments, pictures and other historical notes of his trip with some addi­tional notes by R. J. Alexander.

  December 1, 1983

  The following account being the reminiscences of Cliff Alexander Jr. concerning a brief journey to the village of Ramsbury, the county of Wilts in England, on November 11, 1983.

  Because of the uncertainty of transportation to Ramsbury it was decided that I should make the trip alone leaving the two Karins (wife and daughter) in London for the day. We had taken the morning train from Birmingham where we had been living during our stay, and had arrived in Euston station about 11:40 in the morning. I had to transfer myself across London to Paddington station to catch the next train to Hungerford which was scheduled to leave at 12:15. In as much as the British trains always depart exactly on the minute I did not have much time to spare. Fortunately, the London subway system is quite efficient and I found myself in Paddington station with five minutes to spare.

  We were without a car during our stay in England, and had to rely heavily on the train service for our travel. However, it is possible to get almost everywhere in England by train so we really did not notice the lack of a car. Except today. The closest train service to Ramsbury is the local line which runs to a nearby town called Hungerford; so that is where I headed. It was only a trip of 1 hour and 45 minutes from London; and it seemed that I would have sufficient time to see all that I needed to see. So I boarded the train headed towards Bristol at 12:15, and 25 minutes later stepped off at Reading which is the transfer point for the local service to Hungerford. This local train departed some three minutes later so there was no delay although the pace was much slower than the mainline trains (which travel about 90 m.p.h.). The local trains in England consist of two or three self-propelled passenger cars (without a separate diesel engine), and travel at best about 50 m.p.h. Although the pace is leisurely it does give one time to examine the countryside in some detail. Also, they stop at every small station along the line so you can get a sense of the villages away from the big cities. On this trip we passed through little villages with the names of Theale, Aldermaston, Midgham, Thatcham, Newbury, and Kintbury.

  The country to the West of Reading encompasses an area generally known as the Salisbury Plain. It is generally flat chalk lands broken up with small rivers and streams forming what is known as water meadows. To the south on the plain there is a mixture of heath and forest, while the landscape to the North and East (near Ramsbury) the land is more rolling and hilly with groves of Oak and Pine plus a few Birch. In fact...the appearance of the countryside is very much like that of southern Minnesota; and one can appreciate why great-grandfather was attracted to the area near the Zumbro valley.

  The area is of some historical interest in that the three surrounding counties at one time formed a small independent kingdom under the rule of one of the first kings in England. Ramsbury is situated only several miles from the main Roman highway running from London to Bath; and of course the famous stone circle Stonehenge is about 30 miles to the southwest.

  The general impression is of small, neatly tended farms separated by hedgerows, with small brick or stone farmhouses and barns scattered up and down the slopes of the hills. One interesting sight was the occasional large oak tree that was covered with ivy looking more like a huge bush than tree. Once past Kintbury the railroad runs close to the Kennet, a rather small, slow moving river that wanders around through the hedgerows and meadows widening out here and there to form a suitable fishing pond.
After an hours ride the train pulled up to the platform at Hungerford . It was shortly after 2:00 P.M. The town is so small that there is no station; only a platform with two benches for waiting on the train; and a board that displayed the schedule of trains headed back to Reading. The only buildings nearby were a pub (closed) and some sort of warehouse. A sign pointed toward town center which turned out to be only a ten minute walk.

  Hungerford is a small town, non-descript in appearance, with none of that picturesque charm that you associate with the beautiful old English towns like York or Chester. The main street is about three blocks long, is lined with old run-down ships and houses, and has a small stone city hall, a hotel, a post office, grocery store, and several antique shops.

  My main problem was finding a way to get to Ramsbury which, according to the map, was about five miles to the west. This was within walking distance (I had become used to walking 3 to 4 hours at a stretch) and I seriously considered it for it would have been an excellent way to see the countryside. However, the day was quite overcast, and the sun is very low in the sky in November, and I was concerned about having enough daylight for some pictures, so I decided I would have to find some vehicle.

  I made several inquiries about any local bus service in the area but no one seemed sure about the details. It turned out that there was a bus but it only made two trips a day. Inasmuch as time was passing I decided to find a cab. I went into the lobby of the hotel and phoned the local cab company. Within five minutes an elderly gentleman drove up in a new ford, and we set off for Ramsbury. The driver was quite talkative and soon learned about my interest in the place. He did provide one interesting bit of information: it seems that Ramsbury had been voted the most desirable village in southern England a few years back indicating that it was still a good place to live.

  It was about a ten minute drive, and so I arrived about 2:30. I had asked to be let off in the center of the village; and so I found myself in the town square, or - to be more accurate - the town triangle, For the center turned out to be a triangle formed by the intersection of three roads. There was a large pub on one side, and shops on the other two sides, In the center of this space was the topless trunk of what had once been a HUGE old tree. All that was left was this knarly old trunk that probably was some sort of memorial to what once must have been a very impressive and beautiful place in the village.

  The main street of the village was narrow, and seemed to be blocks long, It was lined on both sides with old brick structures which were two stories high, and evidently had shops on the ground floor and living quarters above. It would have been interesting to know which shop had been great-grandfathers. Undoubtedly it was still there because all the structures looked at least 400 years old. The buildings on the south side of the street looked over the Kennet river which was about 200 feet from the road. All had long back yards which fronted on the river. The houses and shops were intermixed so there was not a definite shopping district. There was little traffic and fewer people to be seen; and the general impression was that of a small, lazy, quiet little village where time seemed to be standing still.

  Roy Alexander had sent me some information on some of the old family houses, so my first step was to make inquiries at the post office (and dry goods store) about the whereabouts of the various roads. They turned out to be at the other end of the village, so I decided to explore the western end first. The most interesting discovery was the parish church. It was just off the main road about two blocks from the village center, It is very old dating back to the 1200''s with some parts several hundred years older,

  It lies partway up a hill, and is surrounded on three sides by the parish cemetery. It is still in active use by the village, and is left open for visitors; so I went in and took some pictures. The church is small and not distinguished in design, but it does have some historical interest. During the years 909 to 1048 it was the seat of the Bishop of the diocese of that area which included Wiltshire and Oxfordshire which made it a fairly important place. Later, the Bishop decided to move to Salisbury to the south and that is where that very magnificent cathedral was built.

  The most curious thing about the church (and in fact the whole village) is the material used to construct the walls. The walls of the church, the houses, even the garden walls, use a sort of rubble construction where this peculiar type of rock is laid up with large amount of mortar surrounding the rock, The stone is not dressed or cut in any way. It is set up just as it comes from the ground in sort of a rough and random fashion. The rock is black having a smooth appearance somewhat like agate. I picked up a few pieces and brought them back where a geologist at school examined them. He informed me that the rock is chert...a type of flint that was formed on the sea beds by the decomposition of marine organisms, It was evidently a favorite material : for arrowheads. There must be a huge deposit of it nearby for it was the major method of construction in the village. To break the monotony some of the houses had bands of brick forming a striped pattern in the wall; but brick was not used very much in that part of the village that I visited. Most of the other villages in England use brick as the major material even for the smallest cottages; and in the southwest they use dressed stone like limestone for construction. But Ramsbury was unique.

  The church was open so I looked inside. It was very traditional in layout and design with very few elaborate details or altar. The pews were wood and had a well worn look about them. During some of the recent restorations they had uncovered some of the early fragments of stone carving from the very first church and these were on display. The present church structure is only about 500 years old. I took some pictures and then walked around the church yard which serves as a cemetery (typical of most parish churches) looking at some of the headstones; but the lettering on most was weathered so badly that it was impossible to read anything, and so I left.

  I headed up the hill in the back of the church for the village is situated on the side of a low range of hills that rise from the river. Near the top one can see small groups of new duplexes and apartments so it seems that the village is growing although it is evident that the residents must work somewhere else like the nearby town of Marl borough. The taxi driver had informed me that Ramsbury had been voted as being one of the best villages in southern England in terms of quality of living; so it must be attractive to young families.

  I walked back toward the other end of the village and passed a small art gallery on the way. I looked in and talked briefly with the owner. Upon learning my name he produced a photograph of one William Alexander, former resident of the village , who had lived there from 1876 to 1946. According to the family records none of the family had remained in the village so it seemed unlikely that he was a relative. Actually there are two Alexander families living there at the time of my visit: one at 13 Swan Close; and one at Orchard Cottage, Chapel Lane. Unfortunately I did not have time to call on them.

  I then continued to the other end of town to look for the two old houses that supposedly were occupied by great-great grandfather. The first one is on the main road in to town about % block from the Kennet River. It is a half timber cottage with a large thatch roof. Again, the village is unique in that it has a substantial number of homes with thatch roofs. I saw at least two dozen. Yet, this was the only village in England that I ever did see a thatch roof. This particular house was evidently quite old, but looked in good shape. It had evidently been added to many times; and there was a new sliding glass door on the back side opening in to the garden. I knocked at the door but no one was home, so I walked up the hill along a nearby lane and, about 1% blocks further on found the second house.

  It was brick and stone and had a neatly tended garden. It faced down the hill toward the river, but the view was blocked by the neighboring house which had a thatched roof that came almost to the ground. The house is occupied by a Mrs. Price who was familiar with the Alexander connection; and in fact had recently corresponded with someone in the States concerning the history of the house. I took a few pictures but was rapidly running out of light.

  I then headed back to the center of the town. There were some very old half-timer houses with thatch roofs (you could guess the age by the very small window openings) and I also found the small Methodist church. I noticed a small antique shop still open so I went in with the thought of finding a small souvenir of my visit. I noticed an old moulding plane, and finding the price quite reasonable , decided to buy it. I thought this appropriate since great grandfather had been a carpenter.

  By then it was quite dark, and so the only thing to do was wait for the cab to return. I had to get back to Hungerford by 6:45 to catch the last train to London.

  My general impression was that of a small, quiet little village where life must be little changed from the time that Great grandfather grew up as a small boy. It is not a busy place (I saw only three people outside) and it is obviously not even a significant market place for I saw only two small grocery stores and only one small variety store. Its primary attraction must be the peaceful setting and quiet lifestyle. I shall always be curious why grandfather Alexander decided to leave England for it did take some courage to leave the family roots and heritage and strike out into some unknown country. Yet I suspect that he selected Rochester for his new home because it reminded him so much of his home in England.

Dear Roy and Jean:

  Greetings from Jolly olde England. And I didn't realize how old everything was til I got here. Most of what we've seen has been dirty, moldy, smelly,--your choice of vinegar, beer or fish we've been thru castles, palaces and museums, gardens and cathedrals. Ridden on trains till Cliff says he won't know how to drive a car when he gets back home.
The trains are, in most cases, very reliable. However we found one that wasn't. We waited for one for one full hour, going to Blenheim Palace, where Winston Chur­chill was born. (Not on purpose, his mom just happened to be there when he popped out.) And then another one and one half hours waiting for the return trip. Its fun, seeing all this old stuff. I don't think they have dumps. They save everything for the tourist to buy up in their quaint little shops. I can't get used to the markets here, but they are fun.
I've never seen so many different kinds of people in one place. They all speak English, which is not American. The accent is so different that sometimes I don't think that even the natives understand each other. They queue up for everything, so if you stop suddenly, there will be twenty people lined up behind you. When I shop now I look for a place where there is a wall behind me. They get very im­patient with foreign stupidity.
I see many people with the funny, bulgy eyes, that don't each go in the same direction. The styles are weird. The hairdos are« also strange, especially on the young kids---not all of them---but the "rebels" have themselves painted up like Indians, the hair reminiscent of some bygone tribe.
We are living on the 4th. floor of an old house; formerly servant's quarters. It is adequate but not suptious. The place is in a nice neighborhood, with large houses , nice gardens and yards. Kari is enrolled in a good private girls school. The educational system is very advanced compared with home, -he has problems with the language and terms used.
I think the English must have invented red tape. He opened a checking account at Lloyds Bank. It took about 8 minutes to put his money in but getting it out is something else. He thought he would be allowed to write checks, Ha-Ha, You need a Check card to write them. 60 back to the bank. After waiting 3 weeks to get the card, they told him he couldn't have one because he wouldn't be here a year. Cliff asked why they hadn't mentioned this before. They're very stuffy and don't like being told off. They told him to pay with cash, so we need a card to get cash and after 4 weeks we still haven' the card. Cliff is usually the most patient person in the world, but he is getting angry.
"We would like to get to Ramsbury, to see the old homestead, but Cliff is so afraid of driving. Of course they all drive on the wrong side of the street and apparently there are no speed limits. A pedestrians life is always in doubt. We expect to be home about Thanksgiving. Love to everyone from Karin, Cliff and Karl. Our address is, 50 Farquhar Road, Edgbaston, Birmingham, B-15 England.
Cliff's wife, Karin, had somewhat different impressions of England. Above is a copy of a letter she wrote soon after their arrival in Birmingham, England. She is writing about the busy, industrial city of Birmingham, while Cliff's com­ments are about the small rural village of Ramsbury. (R.J.A.) Following are some historical notes taken by Cliff from "Devizes Historical Soc­iety Publications"
Appointed Constable for Swanbourough Hundred (1736) John Alexander of Hilcott. Tax fine levied against John Alexander of Broken Bourough in 1578 Salisbury Court. John Alisaundre (Old spelling) gave testimony in a Court at New Sarum, Salisbury, on 21 of February 1344. (Note by R.J.A. These Alexanders may or may not have been relatives, but they show that the family was in England several centuries ago.)

THIS INDENTURE WITNESSETH; That John Alexander, son of John Alex­ander of Ramsbury in the County of Wilts, Shopkeeper, with the con­sent of this said Father hereby testifies, doth put himself Appren­tice to Robert Newman of Ramsbury aforesaid Carpenter and Wheel­wright, to learn his Art and with him after the manner of an app­rentice to serve from the day of the date of these presents until the full end and term of three years from thence next following until fully complete and ended.

During which term the said apprentice his Master faithfully shall serve his secrets keep his lawful commands everywhere gladly do. He shall do no damage to his said Master nor see to be done of others, but to his power shall let or forthwith give warning to his said master of the same. He shall not waste the goods of his said Master nor lend them unlawfully to any. He shall not commit fornication nor contract Matrimony within the said term. He shall not play at cards or dice tables or any other unlawful game whereby his said faster may have any loss with his own goods or other during the sb. id term without license of his said Master. He shall neither buy nor sell. He shall not haunt Taverns or Playhouses nor absent himself from his said Masters service day or night unlawfully but in all things as a faithful apprentice he shall behave himself to­wards his said Master and all his during said term.

And the said Robert Newman in consideration of said faithful ser­vice of the said John Alexander and also of five shillings to him this day paid by the said John Alexander the elder doth hereby cov­enant promise and agree that he the said Robert Newman his said apprentice in the Art of a Carpenter and Wheelwright which he useth by the best means that he can, shall teach and instruct or cause to be taught and instructed and the said John Alexander the elder doth hereby covenant and agree to find and provide for his said son board, lodging and all other necessaries during the said term and the said Robert Newman doth hereby agree to pay and allow to his said apprentice during such faithful service six shillings per week for the first year of the said term, seven shillings per week for the second year and eight shillings per week for the third and last year of said term and to continue to pay the same unless the said John Alexander shall absent himself or be prevented from his said service and for the true performance of all and every the said cov­enants and agreements either of the said parties bindeth himself unto the other by these presents.
In witness thereof the parties above named to these Indentures in­terchangeably have put their hands and seals the Twenty eighth day of December and in the Forty ninth year of the Reign of our Sover­eign Lord George the Third by the Grace of God of the United King­dom of 3-reat Britain and Ireland King Defender of the Faith and in the year of our Lord. One Thousand Eight Hundred and Eight.
N.T. The indenture Coven' Article or            John Alexander
Contract must bear date the day it is
executed and what money or other thing         John Alexander 
is given or contracted for with the
clerk or apprentice must be inserted in        Robert Newman
words at length, otherwise the             Sealed and delivered
in­denture will be void, the Master               being first duly stamped  
or Mistress forfeit fifty                   in the presence of,
Pounds and another penalty and the        J. Russell, Ramsbury           
Apprentice be disabled to fellow          P. Lavell, his clerk
his trade or be made free.     

Four indentures relating to members of the Prior family of Keevil, 1744-50, have survived among the Chancery records as exhibits in a law­suit The text of one of them, corresponding to entry no. 1921 below, is as follows :

This indenture witnesseth that Joseph Prior of Keevil in the county of Wilts, by and with the consent of his brother and friends, doth put him self apprentice to Samuel Slade of the parish of Saint John the Baptist in the borough of Devizes in the county of Wilts, to learn his art and with him after the manner of an apprentice to serve, from the day of the date hereof for and during the full end and term of eight years from thence next ensuing and fully to be compleat and ended, during which term the said apprentice his master faithfully shall and will serve, his secrets keep, his lawful commands every where gladly do. He shall do no damage to his said master nor see it to be done of others, but to his power shall let or forthwith give notice to his master of the same. The goods of his said master he shall not waste, nor the same without licence of him to any give or lend. Hurt to his said master he shall not do, cause, or procure to be done; he shall neither buy nor sell without his master's licence. Taverns, inns, or ale-houses, he shall not haunt. At cards, dice, tables, or any other unlawful game, he shall not play. Matrimony he shall not con­tract, nor from the service of his said master day or night absent himself, but in all things as an honest and faithful apprentice shall and will demean and behave himself towards his said master and all his during all the said term. And the said Samuel Slade for and in consideration of the sum of twelve pounds and twelve shillings in hand, paid by James Prior his brother, the receipt whereof is hereby acknowledged, the said apprentice in the art or trade of a cordwainer, which he now useth. shall teach and instruct, or cause to be taught and instructed, the best way and manner that he can, finding and allowing unto his said apprentice sufficient meat, drink, apparell, washing, lodging and all other necessaries during the said term and at the end of the said term one good new suit of apparell, besides work apparell. The said James Prior is to be at half the expence of physick and attendance in smallpox. And for the true performance of all every the covenants and agreements aforesaid, either of the said parties bindeth himself firmly by these presents. In witness whereof the parties abovesaid to these indentures interchangeably have set their hands and seals the twenty-third day of August in the twenty-fourth year of the reign of our Sovereign Lord George the Second by the Grace of God of Great Britain, France and Ireland King. Defender of the Faith, And in the Year of our Lord 1750.
Marked [with the mark of] Joseph Prior
 Signed        Samuel Slade
Signed, sealed and delivered, being first duly stamped, in the presence of John Hicks and John Herebage.
Endorsed Received  six  shillings  and   fourpence  for  His Majesty's duty of sixpence per £.
Signed Henry Williams [collector] Entered etc.

The highly formal document, ringing with stately pleonasms, had changed little in two centuries; indeed the only notable difference between this indenture of 1750 and one of 1560 is the omission of a clause forbidding the apprentice to commit fornication, a sign, perhaps, of the worldlywise eighteenth century!

Because Cliff's great-great-grandfather, John Alexander had served an apprenticeship, in Ramsbury, as carpenter and wheel­wright, Cliff was interested in learning some of the history of this custom

The County Registers from which the entries in this volume have been abstracted form part of the series of Apprenticeship Registers among the records of the Board of Inland Revenue in the Public Record Office [I.R.i., Volumes 41-53]. These registers record the payment of duties on apprentice­ship indentures which came into force on 1 May 1710 as a result of an Act of the previous year.
Apprenticeship already had a long history in England before the Eliza­bethan Statute of 1563 made it compulsory for all artificers, but it was left to the Parliament that impeached Dr. Sacheverell to develop it as a source of national income. This taxation was a product of the French War, when many experiments were being made and, as with so many kinds of emergency duties, it remained in force for a century. Duty was liable on all indentures at the rate of 6d. in the £ on premiums of £50 and under, and is. in the £ on larger sums. It was normally payable by the master or mistress, except in cases where an apprentice was placed out at public charge or charity; though 2s. 6d. was in fact paid when William Bond ' a poor boy of Marlborough Charity School, was apprenticed to a Ramsbury cordwainer.2 When masters refused to pay the duty, the apprentices or their parents were encouraged to do so to save themselves from possible prosecution. In the few cases in which the apprentice's parent paid the duty, the first payment of duty was itself taxed as well as the premium; when Robert Raines was placed with a Salisbury attorney in 1721, his mother paid 45. duty on the £80 premium plus 2l/2d. duty on the 45.
The procedure was laid down in the Act in detail. Masters and mistresses who took apprentices fifty miles or more from the Limits of the Weekly Bills of Mortality in London l were to bring their copy of the indenture to the local collector within two months of its execution. They were to ensure that the full premium, including the value of anything directly or indirectly-given, was inserted in the document and to pay the ad valorem duty.
Alexander, Francis: to William Marchant, glover, of Upavon :  8 Feb.
1752: L: £15.1$-° (8 Feb. 1752: 51/225).
Alexander, Henry, S. of Henry, of Malmesbury: to Robert Cove, cord­
wainer, of Tetbury (co. Gloucs.):  19 May 1718: C.I.C.:  £7 (22 Oct. 1718:
Alexander, John;   to Francis Saunders, collarmaker, of  Bradford:   2$
Mar. 1756:  L:  £10 (15 Apr. 1756: 55/185).
Alexander, John, S. of John, yeoman, of Bradford: to Thomas Shower­
ing, tailor, of Bradford:   25  Mar.   1723:   C.I.C.:   £4.10.0 (30 May   1723:
Alexander, John, S. of Thomas [? of co. Gloucs.]:  to Henry Fildowne,
baker, of Alderton : 25 Nov. 1742: C.I.C.: £5.5.0 (28 May 1744: 50/219).
30.	Alexander, Joseph, S. of Henry : to Richard Panting, feltmaker [place not
named]:  26 Aug. 1717: C.I.C.: £10 (10 Oct. 1717:
\!e\.inder. Sarah:  to Jane Davis, mantua-maker, of Marden :   30 Aug. :;j$: i.:  £6 (30 Sept. 1756: 55/186).
JU.   \lc\ander. William. S. of Samuel : to Robert Brockway, blacksmith, of .-.r.crnc:   14 Mar. 1729: C.I.C.:  £6 (9 May 1730: 49/200).

While searching old records for bits of history concerning xne Alexander family, in England, Cliff came upon this interesting ar­ticle concerning tithing, evidently mandatory, at least in the Parish Churches. The Alexanders mentioned in these notices may have been relatives; all of the villages mentioned ere within twenty miles of Ramsbury.

The practice of paying tithes was based on the notion that tenths should be paid universally to support the local churches and clergy of the early Christian church.1 The theoretical classification of the tithes into predial tithes, arising from the produce of the land, mixed tithes, from the benefits of the stock, and personal tithes, from the fruits of men's labour, emphasized that no economic activity was exempt from tithe-payment. In theory, and perhaps for a time in practice, churches were held by incumbent rectors who served, and received all the tithes from, a locality which became an ecclesiastical parish. Such parishes were established early in England and the pattern of them was little changed until the 19th century. The paying and receiving of tithes may well have caused dissension at the time when new churches were being founded but subsequent events added new causes for confusion and dis­satisfaction. The cure of souls in a parish sometimes passed from the hands of the rector, usually when a monastery appropriated to itself the revenues of the church. When a vicar was nominated to serve the church in the rector's place, the vicarage ordained for him was often endowed with some of the parish tithes. The distinction thus created between rectorial and vicarial tithes usually followed, and so consolidated, the distinction between great tithes, arising from corn, hay, and wool, and small tithes. The great tithes usually remained part of the rectorial estate and the small tithes were usually part of the endowment of the vicarage. After the Dissolution the great tithes often passed through the Crown to laymen and, when not attached to a benefice or an ecclesiastical office, an estate consisting of tithes could be broken up and disposed of in the same way as one consisting of land. To avoid payment in kind tithes were sometimes leased to the owner or tenant of the land from which they arose or, especially in the case of small tithes, were replaced by annual payments which frequently became fixed by custom.2 The possible existence within a parish of several tithe-owners, perhaps but not necessarily landowners, and of owners with rights to different kinds of tithes, and the availability of several methods of payment could both be sources of confusion and dispute.
Agreement    6 Sept. 1838, confirmed 30 Sept. 1841.
Tithe rent-charge    £1,325 10s. to the bishop of Salisbury for great tithes on
5,367 a. and small tithes on 4,603 a., including £5 105. for tithes on glebe;
£360 to the vicar (Robert Clarke Caswall) for great tithes on 1,064 a. and
small tithes on 1,848 a. Arable 5,074 a. Meadow 2,332 a. Wood 25 a.
west lavington	(4,586 a.)
Owners    5. Bishop of Salisbury 2,943 a.; Francis Almerick Spencer, Lord
Churchill, 1,556 a.; James Tilby 66 a. Glebe 15 a.
Occupiers    Lord Churchill 4,327 a.; Stephen Dark, the elder, 66 a.
littleton	(917 a.)
Owners    59. William Pleydell-Bouverie, earl of Radnor, 649 a.; William a
Beckett Turner 135 a.
Occupiers    Charles Alexander 603 a.; Abraham N^ewrnan 1_30 a.
fiddington	(781 a.)
Owners   22. Richard Cruttwell 415 a.; John Hayward 67 a. Orruniers    Ravmond Hale 415 a.: William Davies 67 a.